The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing … Trotsky and Bonch-Bruevich (a vital ex-Tsarist commander) pragmatically organized them along traditional military lines and used Tsarist officers, despite socialist complaints. The February Revolution of 1917 resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia. To do this the British, French and US landed a small expeditionary force at Murmansk and Archangel. The results of the civil war were momentous. They were fighting to retain control and keep Russia together. Pressing Issues That Led to the Civil War. The Cossacks had been unable to organise and capitalise on their successes at the end of 1918. asked Jul 28, 2018 in Class IX Social Science by aditya23 ( -2,145 points) socialism in europe and russian revolution There were violent clashes with the Bolsheviks. A review of Red Army troops in Moscow in 1918. As a result, by the end of the civil war, the Reds were almost entirely Bolshevik. At the end of April and beginning of May the AFSR attacked on all fronts from the Dnepr to the Volga, and by the beginning of the summer they had won numerous battles. Yekaterinodar was encircled on 1 August and fell on the 3rd. [88], At the end of the Civil War the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. The Russian Civil War is an historical event that brings together many different phenomena related to twentieth century history. Further military opposition to the Bolsheviks also emerged from foreign forces. They dismissed the elected Constitutional Assembly at gunpoint and banned opposition politics; it was clear they wanted a dictatorship. Red Army attacks on the anarchist forces and their sympathisers increased in ferocity throughout 1921. There was a civil war in 1918 because there was increasing opposition to the Bolsheviks. The Ottoman Army of Islam (in coalition with Azerbaijan) drove them out of Baku on 26 July 1918. This opposition came from indigenous people, Czechs legions in Russia, and the West. [45] In May 1918, with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion, they took Samara and Saratov, establishing the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly—known as the "Komuch". By mid-December 1918 White armies had to leave Ufa, but they balanced this failure with a successful drive towards Perm, which they took on 24 December. During the Russian CIVIL WAR there were two parties fighting each other- the "Reds", and the "Whites". A ‘Government of South Russia’ under Vrangel was formed in the region as the remainder fought on and advanced out but were pushed back. Viktor G. Bortnevski, "White Administration and White Terror (the Denikin Period).". Throughout the 19th century, the majority of Russia's leaders were harsh and caused civil unrest. Trotsky himself declared, "It is impossible for a little army of 15,000 ex-officers to master a working-class capital of 700,000 inhabitants." Mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries followed. While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very next day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the political ban became a catalystfor the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new regime. Anti-Bolshevik forces took advantage of the chaos to coalesce here and new White armies emerged. By the half of the 20 th century, politics had dominated the nation and everything was chaotic. • The Red Army invaded Poland in 1921, but was defeated and driven back. Due to Red Army successes north of Central Asia, communication with Moscow was re-established and the Bolsheviks were able to claim victory over the White Army in Turkestan.[67]. Leon Trotsky, representing the Bolsheviks, refused at first to sign the treaty while continuing to observe a unilateral cease-fire, following the policy of "No war, no peace".[39]. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. One of the 3 causes of the causes of the Afghanistan war was that the U.S. sent money and military assistance to those fighting the soviets. It was supported by the Junker Mutiny in Petrograd but was quickly put down by the Red Guard, notably including the Latvian Rifle Division. Not true. Kolchak, pushed out of Omsk and vital supply territory by the Reds, tried to establish himself at Irktusk, but his forces fell apart and, after resigning, he was arrested by left-leaning rebels he’d managed to totally alienate during his rule, given to the Reds, and executed. At first the White armies' advances from the south (under Denikin), the east (under Kolchak) and the northwest (under Yudenich) were successful, forcing the Red Army and its allies back on all three fronts. Radical leftist revolutionaries overthrew Russia’s czar Nicholas II, ending centuries of Romanov rule. The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война в России, tr. In June 1918, when it had become apparent that a revolutionary army composed solely of workers would not suffice, Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army. The Russian Civil War was caused by the Russian Revolution. While the White armies were being routed in Central Russia and the east, they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine and the Crimea. Retreat of the eastern front by White armies lasted three months, until mid-February 1920, when the survivors, after crossing Lake Baikal, reached Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov's forces. On 14 November 1919 the Red Army captured Omsk. • The last White army in Russia was defeated in the Crimea in 1920. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Spring 1919 counteroffensive of the Red Army, 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election, People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War, Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks, Declaration of Rights of Nations of Russia, Romanian military intervention in Bessarabia, Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia, Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly, hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place, Far Eastern Front in the Russian Civil War, Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Index of articles related to the Russian Revolution and Civil War, "Russian Civil War | Causes, Outcome, and Effects", "Revolutionary ferment in Finland and the origins of the civil war 1917–1918", Каледин, Алексей Максимович. By 1919 they had begun to run short of supplies. Despite this setback, Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine. By 1922 there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from World War I and the civil war.[89]. The outbreak of the Russian Civil War and its big scale surprised Vladimir Lenin. By the beginning of 1920 the main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia was rapidly retreating towards the Don, to Rostov. There were battles in Ukraine and surrounding areas between other countries over territory. An agreement was reached between Denikin, head of the Volunteer Army, and Pyotr Krasnov, Ataman of the Don Cossacks, which united their forces under the sole command of Denikin. However, units retreating across the border were disarmed and interned by order of the Estonian government, which had entered into peace negotiations with the Soviet Government on 16 September and had been informed by the Soviet authorities of their 6 November decision that, should the White Army be allowed to retreat into Estonia, it would be pursued across the border by the Reds. On 25 October 1922 Vladivostok fell to the Red Army, and the Provisional Priamur Government was extinguished. Japanese troops had also landed in the Far East, while in late 1918 the French arrived through the south in the Crimea and British in the Caucuses. Losing the War. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok slowed down in the chaos, and the troops became dispersed all along the Trans-Siberian Railway. In October 1919 he tried to capture Petrograd in a sudden assault with a force of around 20,000 men. Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. Simultaneously Russian officers' organisations overthrew the Bolsheviks in Petropavlovsk (in present-day Kazakhstan) and in Omsk. The difference between those two is French was made by burgoise against … [77], During the Red Terror, estimates of Cheka executions range from 12,733 to 1.7 million. What were the effects of the Russian Civil War? On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir, and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. The Bolsheviks responded by expelling them from the Soviets and then targeted them with a secret police force. Other White gains were also driven back as the Reds took advantage of overreaching lines. General Wrangel had gathered the remnants of Denikin's armies, occupying much of the Crimea. Slipshod evacuation of Novorossiysk proved to be a dark event for the White Army. [20], The German Empire created several short-lived satellite buffer states within its sphere of influence after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: the United Baltic Duchy, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Kingdom of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland,[21] the Belarusian People's Republic, and the Ukrainian State. The Russian Empire fought in World War I from 1914 alongside France and the United Kingdom (Triple Entente) against Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Central Powers). Meanwhile, World War 1 had ended, and the European states engaged in foreign intervention suddenly found their key motivation had evaporated. The Bolsheviks established a socialist state in the territory that was once the Russian Empire. France and Italy urged a major military intervention, Britain and the US much less. In view of this, on 18 February 1918 the Germans began Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front, encountering virtually no resistance in a campaign that lasted 11 days. [46][47]The Cheka special investigations forces were also charged with the detection of sabotage and counter-revolutionary activity by Red Army soldiers and commanders. Trotsky armed all available workers, men and women, ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. Shortly before the fall of Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918, the former Tsar and his family were murdered by the Ural Soviet to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Whites. [30] The Bolsheviks attempted to take control of the Committee in Tashkent on 12 September 1917 but it was unsuccessful, and many leaders were arrested. The initial groups that fought against the Communists were local Cossack armies that had declared their loyalty to the Provisional Government. ", Stone, David R. "The Russian Civil War, 1917–1921," in, Smele, Jonathan D. "Still Searching for the ‘Third Way’: Geoffrey Swain's Interventions in the Russian Civil Wars. Although the Bolsheviks had gained some of their support by pledging to end the war, the terms of the peace treaty caused those on the left-wing who remained non-Bolshevik to split away. These émigrés included a large percentage of the educated and skilled population of Russia. What were the causes of the civil war between the Bolsheviks and the Russian army of the Non-Bolshevik socialists ? Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia, many with General Wrangel—some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. However, there was still stiff opposition to the Bolsheviks, not least of which from the right-wing faction in the army; this began to form a unit of volunteers from hardcore anti-Bolsheviks in the Kuban Steppes. Causes and Effects of Chinese Civil War. In Moscow a Left SR uprising was put down by the Bolsheviks, using Cheka military detachments. In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force. Both sides had victories and losses, but by the middle of summer the Red Army was larger than the White Army and had managed to recapture territory previously lost.[58]. One was Lt. Col. Bailey, who recorded a mission to Tashkent, from where the Bolsheviks forced him to flee. Losing the War. Following the defeat of Germany in World War I in November 1918, these states were abolished. Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1918, Biography of Joseph Stalin, Dictator of the Soviet Union, Biography of Czar Nicholas II, Last Czar of Russia, Operation Barbarossa in World War II: History and Significance, The Significance of the Color Red in Russian Culture, Biography of Anastasia Romanov, Doomed Russian Duchess, M.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University, B.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined. Denikin hoped to hold the crossings of the Don, then rest and reform his troops, but the White Army was not able to hold the Don area, and at the end of February 1920 started a retreat across Kuban towards Novorossiysk. The first attempt to regain power from the Bolsheviks was made by the Kerensky-Krasnov uprising in October 1917. After the capture of Tsaritsyn, Wrangel pushed towards Saratov but Trotsky, seeing the danger of the union with Kolchak, against whom the Red command was concentrating large masses of troops, repulsed his attempts with heavy losses. They had an agreement with the new Bolshevik government to be evacuated from the Eastern Front via the port of Vladivostok to France. [76] Boris Sennikov estimated the total losses among the population of Tambov region in 1920 to 1922 resulting from the war, executions, and imprisonment in concentration camps as approximately 240,000. The White front had no depth or stability—it had become a series of patrols with occasional columns of slowly advancing troops without reserves. The Ukrainian Soviet government was nearly powerless in the face of a centralized monolith Communist Party apparatus based in Moscow. The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia formed in Omsk. Consequently, they failed to pull together in a unified front and were forced to operate independently. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards.[10]. The Red Terror of the Cheka was more effective than the White Terror, allowing a greater grip on their host population, stopping the sort of internal rebellion that might have fatally weakened the Reds. A Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine during the war. The dates of these attacks (May 25th, 1918) are often incorrectly called the start of the Civil War, but the Czech legion did swiftly take a large territory, especially when compared to the armies in World War 1, thanks to seizing almost the entire railway and with it access to vast areas of Russia. There were many cruel atrocities. As scholars of Ukraine have explored for over two decades, however, simple binaries (e.g. The revolution was the culmination of a long period of repression and unrest. Soon after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first period of the Russian Civil War began. There were also the ‘Greens’. Quite what effect the war had on the Bolsheviks, who started with a loose grip on Russia with little established, and ended firmly in charge, is debated. By 1921 cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. The Reds were the Communist newly formed government, with Lenin as their leader. Between seven and ten million had died from war, disease, and famine. Already on the date of the Revolution, Cossack General Alexey Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region,[26] where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. [71], After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest. This is a basic overview of the Russian Civil War, so I've excluded quite a lot. He then took Kharkov and Tsaritsyn, broke out into Ukraine, and began a general move north towards Moscow from across large parts of the south, providing the greatest threat to the Soviet capital of the war. The Reds were by no means popular, but they were more popular than the conservative Whites thanks to land reform; by no means an effective government, but more effective than the Whites. [1]:35, The Bolsheviks decided to immediately make peace with the German Empire and the Central Powers, as they had promised the Russian people before the Revolution. Not really differ from French Revolution in causes. By June 1918 this force had survived great difficulties from the infamous Russian winter, fighting the ‘First Kuban Campaign’ or the ‘Ice March’, a near-continuous battle and movement against the Reds that lasted over fifty days and saw their commander Kornilov (who may have attempted a coup in 1917) killed. the causes of bolshevik victory in the civil war Posted on June 22, 2016 by MSW Although the Bolsheviks ultimately won the civil war, their victory at the outset was by no means assured, nor did it seem so to weary contemporaries. The Northwestern Army, under Yudenich advanced out of the Baltic and threatened St. Petersburg before his ‘allied’ elements went their own way and disrupted the attack, which was pushed back and collapsed. Stephen Lee, European Dictatorships, 1987 Bunce, et al, Communist States, 2015. Most of my knowledge is from the Finnish Civil War which happened at the same time and was strongly connected to the Russian Civil War, but much of the weapons available and used was also widely used in the Russian Civil War. By this time Denikin's forces were dangerously overextended. The remoteness of the Volga Region, the Ural Region, Siberia and the Far East was favorable for the anti-Bolshevik forces, and the Whites set up a number of organizations in the cities of these regions. [87] The White Terror, as it would become known, killed about 300,000 people in total. On the Volga, Col. Kappel's White detachment captured Kazan on 7 August, but the Reds re-captured the city on 8 September 1918 following a counteroffensive. The Whites wished to challenge the Reds' control of Russia, and wanted to continue the war … In Ukraine the German-Austrian Operation Faustschlag had by April 1918 removed the Bolsheviks from Ukraine. Russia started the war with the word's largest army: approximately 5 million soldiers once they were fully mobilized. This rendered possible another threat to the Red Army—one from Gen. Yudenich, who had spent the summer organizing the Northwestern Army in Estonia with local and British support. The Red Army had survived in 1919 and had time to solidify and become effective. The Whites fell back eastwards to Ufa and Orenburg. They were also outnumbered and out supplied by the Red Army, which had better communications. ", This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 22:48. After a series of engagements, assisted by a Black Army offensive against White supply lines, the Red Army defeated Denikin's and Yudenich's armies in October and November. [84] An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. Kolchak and his right-leaning officers were highly suspicious of any anti-Bolshevik socialists, and the latter were driven out. The Czech legion wanted independence but they couldn't achieve it while the Bolsheviks were in power. ed.. Liddell Hart, Basil. World War I was very hard on the Russian Empire. The railways barely crawl. 7,000,000–12,000,000 total casualties, includingcivilians and non-combatants. The treaty inflicted deep humiliation on the country that people thought it was better to fight the Germans, but the Russian army had been disintegrated. [66] Despite this success for the Red Army, the White Army's assaults in European Russia and other areas broke communication between Moscow and Tashkent. Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth[90] in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar on Russian society and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. Lenin considered it "completely certain, that the slightest aid from Finland would have determined the fate of [the city]". [70] In March 1920 her remnants crossed the border into the Northwestern region of China. These were forces fighting, not for the reds of the whites, but after their own goals, like national independence; neither the Reds or Whites recognized breakaway regions - or for food and booty. The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. In 1922, the Russian Civil War was coming to an end in the Far East, and the Communists proclaimed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) as a federation of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia. • The civil war caused shortages, famine and disease - millions died. More evacuations then took place: nearly 150,000 fled by sea, and the Bolsheviks shot tens of thousands of those left behind. Trotsky extended the use of the death penalty to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy. [38], On 16 December 1917 an armistice was signed between Russia and the Central Powers in Brest-Litovsk and peace talks began. Areas on the outskirts of the Russian empire took advantage of the chaos to declare independence and in 1918 almost the whole periphery of Russia was lost to the Bolsheviks by localized military revolts. Western socialists had promptly arrived from France and from the UK to convince the Russians to continue the fight, but could not change the new pacifist mood of Russia. The treaty inflicted deep humiliation on the country that people thought it was better to fight the Germans, but the Russian army had been disintegrated. The situation soon broke down into rebel forces dominating some regions and the Reds, under a puppet Ukrainian leader, holding others. The revolution of 1911 led to the fall of the Manchu dynasty and the new state could not prevent China from exploitation by the foreign nations. A third of the Communist party (the old Bolshevik party) members who joined in 1917; 20 had fought in the war and gave the party an overall feeling of military command and unquestioned obedience to orders. Hey, that’s a mighty complex question. A biography of Kaledin (in Russian), "Ukraine – World War I and the struggle for independence", 100 years ago Bakhmut and the rest of Donbass liberated, "The Ukrainian Navy and the Crimean Issue in 1917–18", War Without Fronts: Atamans and Commissars in Ukraine, 1917–1919, "Workers' Organizations in the Russian Revolution", "Distinguished Service Order citation for Bruce in the 1920, https://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_22_2_03_mentzel.pdf, "Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917", And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, 1918–1930, ‘If Grandma had Whiskers … ’: Could the Anti-Bolsheviks have won the Russian Revolutions and Civil Wars? Geographical position also contributed to the Reds victory in the Russian Civil War. Peter C. Mentzel, "Chaos and Utopia: The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution and Civil War". With the retreat of Kolchak in Siberia, they pulled their troops out of the cities before the winter trapped them in the port. In October Gen. Alekseev, the leader of the White armies in southern Russia died of a heart attack. The Bolsheviks have consolidated their power, with the party expanding, dissidents being quelled and institutions taking shape. You’d be better off reading some details about it. Civil war began in Afghanistan"s borders and people were fighting between pro- and ant- communist forces. The remaining White forces under Yevgeny Miller evacuated the region in February 1920. He settled on a strategy of urban defense, proclaiming that the city would "defend itself on its own ground" and that the White Army would be lost in a labyrinth of fortified streets and there "meet its grave".[55]. When Kolchak's army in the east began to retreat in June and July, the bulk of the Red Army, free from any serious danger from Siberia, was directed against Denikin. On 6–7 February Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies thrown through the ice of the frozen Angara River, just before the arrival of the White Army in the area.[1]:319–21. While resistance to the Red Guards began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one-party rule became a catalyst[17] for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new Soviet government. In this view, the ‘civil war’ was caused by pluralism being overthrown by ‘monist’ nationality policies which are intolerant of Russian-speakers and espouse Russophobia. The Russian Civil War began with widespread resistance to the new Bolshevik order. М., Центрполиграф, 2005. He was able to restore order to the dispirited troops and reshape an army that could fight as a regular force again. [1]:286 Some sources claimed at least 250,000 summary executions of "enemies of the people" with estimates reaching above a million. The possible consequence of any serious military mission from the allies is still debated, and Allied supplies took a while to arrive, usually only playing a role later in the war. [91], The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of, Ukraine, South Russia, and Caucasus (1918), Eastern Russia, Siberia and Far East of Russia (1918), South Russia, Ukraine and Kronstadt (1920–21), These authorities were created between the collapse of the Russian Republic and creation of the Russian State, The main phase ended on October 25, 1922. In June the Red Army first checked Kolchak's advance. Hope everybody can follow this. Fierce fighting took place at the key rail junction of Kastornoye, which was taken on 15 November; Kursk was retaken two days later.[65]. The Russian Civil War is an historical event that brings together many different phenomena related to twentieth century history. After a series of reverses at the front, the Bolsheviks' War Commissar, Trotsky, instituted increasingly harsh measures in order to prevent unauthorised withdrawals, desertions and mutinies in the Red Army. On 18 November a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. The Whites were loath to recognize land reforms, so didn’t convert the peasants to their cause, and were loath to recognize nationalist movements, so largely lost their support. Autocracy was being used in the government. On the 11th Simbirsk fell, and on 8 October Samara. Within a few weeks the Red Army defending Petrograd had tripled in size and outnumbered Yudenich three to one. The Allies gave large quantities of aid to Yudenich, who, however, complained that he was receiving insufficient support. The Russian Civil War. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. 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Soon the Red Army ’, involving only small groups amid a fluid and rapidly strategic... Three to one from Finland would have determined the fate of [ the city 26... - millions died the Denikin period ). `` the command of general Denikin 's military strength continued to in. Fell on the 3rd greatest threat to its target the leading Tsarist officers of the United States a real and! The previous Russian Revolution thus began the uninterrupted retreat of the Civil War ( Russian: Гражданская в! Here and new White armies in southern Russia men and women, ordering the transfer of military forces Moscow. Had to safeguard their fragile grip on the reins of power himself declared, `` it is impossible for little... Party did not completely dismantle this group until 1934. [ 10 ] a horrifying of! Armistice was signed between Russia and Siberia invasion of southern Ukraine was rebuffed by the Kerensky-Krasnov in! Latter, only 205 miles ( 330 km ) from Moscow determined the fate of [ city. To one October 1919. [ 15 ], artillery and fresh reinforcements, Denikin 's Army reached Transbaikalia joined. Expedient means to end the War, in fact, as well as the 1921,... Intervention in Northern Russia and Siberia what caused the russian civil war was nearly powerless in the former Russian Empire on! All along what caused the russian civil war Trans-Siberian Railroad between Lake Baikal and the Central Powers, Trotsky the... Muslim Jadidists, the Siberian Provisional government and others in the Process the! Yudenich, who, however, simple binaries ( e.g, albeit one that the...

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